**Introduction
**An interval is what we call the "distance" between
two notes. This distance has two properties. One, the quantity, we learned
about in Lesson 1. The quantity is determined by counting the letters involved
in the interval. Count the first letter as one, and then count each letter
until the final letter is reached. The number of letters counted is the
quantity (or interval number) for that interval. Thus, three letters equals
a third, five letters a fifth, and so on.

The Quality of the interval is much more difficult. The quality is determined
by figuring out the actual distance in steps. This allows us to differentiate
between intervals of the same quantity. For example, *c *to *e *and
c to *e ^{b}* are both thirds. We need some way to distinguish
between these thirds. By labeling the interval number with a name, the
quality, we can tell the difference between them. In this case,

**Perfect Intervals**

The
first intervals that we will look at will be perfect intervals. The reason
for calling these intervals perfect is too long to explain here. Just learn
which ones are perfect and you will be fine. Once you do some exercises,
it will become simple.

In defining perfect intervals, we begin by using a major scale. We define
the intervals by using the first scale step, *1* , and the scale steps
*1 , 4 , 5* , and *8 *, as perfect intervals. For example: *1
*to *1 *is a Perfect Unison; *1 *to *4 *is a Perfect
Fourth; *1 *to *5* Perfect Fifth; and *1 *to *8 *is
a Perfect Octave. (See Table 2-1)

Method 1: Using the major scale.

It is critical to understand that we must use the major scale of the
lower note in the interval to determine the quality. Intervals are defined
by using ascending intervals only, so using the scale from the upper tone
would often give us incorrect results. For example, if we want to find
the perfect fourth above *f*, we must first know the make-up of an
F Major scale. By looking at an F Major scale and counting up to the fourth
note, you will find that the fourth is a *b ^{b}*. This is
one of two ways to determine the notes in an interval.

Method 2: Counting Steps

It is also possible to figure out the intervals by counting half-steps
and whole-steps (see Exercise 2-1). By counting up four letters from *f*,
we find that a fourth above f is some type of a *b *note. Then, knowing
that a perfect fourth covers 2-1/2 steps, the b must be changed to a *b ^{b}*
because

**Exerise 2-2** Fill in the correct note names fot the intervals
below.

- Now it is time to begin using the Intervals Module of
*In-Depth Guitar.*Begin by memorizing the Perfect 5ths of all of the natural notes. Go into the Interval Module. Since the default interval is P5 and the default scale is C, you simply hit 'Start' to begin. (If you need to change the interval, click on the 'Change Intervals' button.) Practice this for 10 minutes the first day, and then for 3 to 5 minutes each day after that until you have the P5's memorized.

**Major Intervals
**We
use the term major to label the rest of the intervals that occur within
the major scale. Since

**Exercise 2-4** Fill in the correct note name for the intervals
below.

- Now, use the Interval Module in
*In-Depth*Guitar to practice your Major Third intervals. As in Exercise 2-3, the first day do 10 minutes on M3's. Then each day after do between 3 and 5 minutes. Once you have memorized M3 and P5, try combining the two and practicing a random selection of both intervals. This will help to make each interval stronger in your memory.

**Exercise 2-5 **In the following chord diagrams, fill in the diagram
with the correct "dot" for the given interval. All intervals
shall be ascending, so the note you choose should be higher in pitch than
the note given. It is possible for the notes to be on the same string if
necessary.

- To practice more of this, you can begin using the Fretboard Module
in
*In-Depth Guitar.*To do an exercise similar to this one, select the * button.

**Minor Intervals**

Now that we know how perfect and major intervals work, minor intervals
are easy. A Minor Interval is simply a lowered (or flatted) major interval.
For example, a minor 3rd (m3)* is a M3 that has been lowered one half-step.
When lowering the major interval, DO NOT change the note names (letters).
The note names must stay the same. Only the quality of the notes (#'s and
*b*'s) can be changed.

At first, the easiest way to determine the minor interval is to figure
out the major interval and then flat it. For example, a M3 above *d *is
*f ^{#}*. Therefore, a m3 above

- To practice more exercise like this, you can use the Intermal Module to practice as many different intervals as you want (it is usually best to memorize each interval individually first, and then add them together as time goes along.)
- To practice an exercise similar to the bottom portion of Exercise 2-8, use the Fretboard Module and select Intervals. This will give you the option of choosing the intervals that you want to use. Select the desired intervals. You will be asked to name the intervals as they appear. As before, begin with several intervals and then work your way up. (Try starting with P5 and M3)

**Augmented and Diminished Intervals
**Now that we have covered all other interval types, we shall
cover augmented and diminished intervals. An augmented interval is either
a major or a perfect interval that has been raised a half-step. A diminished
interval is either a minor or a perfect interval that has been lowered
a half-step.

Pay careful attention to the difference in the affected intervals. Both augmented and diminished intervals affect perfect intervals in a similar way. They work differently when dealing with major and minor intervals. The augmented interval raises a major interval, while the diminished interval lowers a minor interval.

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